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Description

Trigger functions in javascript using Cron syntax. No dependencies. Supports both browser and node usage. Support both es modules, umd and cjs.

Programming language: JavaScript
License: MIT License
Tags: Job Queues     Queue     Scheduler     Timer     Task     Worker     Job     Cron    

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README

Trigger functions and/or evaluate cron expressions in JavaScript. No dependencies. Most features. Node. Deno. Browser. Try it live on jsfiddle.

Croner

Node.js CI Deno CI npm version Codacy Badge NPM Downloads No dependencies MIT License

  • Trigger functions in JavaScript using Cron syntax.
  • Find first date of next month, find date of next tuesday, etc.
  • Pause, resume or stop execution after a task is scheduled.
  • Works in Node.js >=6.0 (both require and import).
  • Works in Deno >=1.16.
  • Works in browsers as standalone, UMD or ES-module.
  • Experimental feature: Schedule in specific target timezones.
  • Includes TypeScript typings.

Quick examples:

// Basic: Run a function at the interval defined by a cron expression
const job = Cron('*/5 * * * * *', () => {
    console.log('This will run every fifth second');
});

// Enumeration: What dates do the next 100 sundays occur at?
const nextSundays = Cron('0 0 0 * * 7').enumerate(100);
console.log(nextSundays);

// Days left to a specific date
const msLeft = Cron('59 59 23 24 DEC *').next() - new Date();
console.log(Math.floor(msLeft/1000/3600/24) + " days left to next christmas eve");

// Run a function at a specific date/time using a non-local timezone (time is ISO 8601 local time)
// This will run 2023-01-23 00:00:00 according to the time in Asia/Kolkata
Cron('2023-01-23T00:00:00', { timezone: 'Asia/Kolkata' }, () => { console.log('Yay') });

More examples...

Why another javascript cron implementation

Because the existing ones aren't good enough. They have serious bugs, use bloated dependencies, do not work in all environments and/or simply don't work as expected.

Benchmark at 2022-02-20:

> node cron-implementation-test.js

Test: When is 23:00 next 31st march, pattern '0 0 23 31 3 *'

node-schedule:    2022-03-31 23:00:00 in 15.379ms
node-cron:        ???                 in 0.339ms
Month '3' is limited to '30' days.
cron:             2022-04-01 23:00:00 in 7.785ms
croner (legacy):  2022-03-31 23:00:00 in 2.142ms
croner (default): 2022-03-31 23:00:00 in 0.672ms

More test results

Test: When is next 15th of february, pattern '0 0 0 15 2 *'

node-schedule:    2023-02-15 00:00:00 in 43.875ms
node-cron:        ???                 in 2.217ms
cron:             2022-03-15 00:00:00 in 4.147ms
croner (legacy):  2023-02-15 00:00:00 in 1.72ms
croner (default): 2023-02-15 00:00:00 in 0.946ms

Test: When is next monday in october, pattern '0 0 0 * 10 1'

node-schedule:    2022-10-03 00:00:00 in 5.594ms
node-cron:        ???                 in 3.62ms
cron:             2022-11-07 00:00:00 in 1.658ms
croner (legacy):  2022-10-03 00:00:00 in 0.697ms
croner (default): 2022-10-03 00:00:00 in 0.546ms

https://gist.github.com/Hexagon/703f85f2dd86443cc17eef8f5cc6cb70

Installation

Node.js

npm install croner --save

JavaScript

// ESM Import ...
import Cron from "croner";

// ... or CommonJS Require
const Cron = require("croner");

TypeScript

Notes for TypeScript:

  • If using strict eslint-rules, specifically new-cap combined with no-new, you need to import and use lower case cron instead of { Cron }.
import { Cron } from "croner";

const job : Cron = new Cron("* * * * * *", () => {
    console.log("This will run every second.");
});

Deno

JavaScript

import Cron from "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/hexagon/[email protected]/src/croner.js";

Cron("* * * * * *", () => {
    console.log("This will run every second.");
});

TypeScript

import { Cron } from "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/hexagon/[email protected]/src/croner.js";

const _scheduler : Cron = new Cron("* * * * * *", () => {
    console.log("This will run every second.");
});

Browser

Manual

  • Download latest zipball
  • Unpack
  • Grab croner.min.js (UMD and standalone) or croner.min.mjs (ES-module) from the dist/ folder

CDN

To use as a UMD-module (stand alone, RequireJS etc.)

<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/[email protected]/dist/croner.min.js"></script>

To use as a ES-module

<script type="module">
    import Cron from "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/[email protected]/dist/croner.min.mjs";

    // ... see usage section ...
</script>

Documentation

Full documentation available at hexagon.github.io/croner.

The short version:

Signature

Cron takes three arguments

const job = Cron("* * * * * *" /* Or a date object, or ISO 8601 local time */ , /*optional*/ { maxRuns: 1 } , /*optional*/ () => {} );

// If function is omitted in constructor, it can be scheduled later
job.schedule((/* optional */ job, /* optional */ context) => {});       

// States
const nextRun = job.next( /*optional*/ previousRun );   // Get a Date object representing next run
const nextRuns = job.enumerate(10, /*optional*/ startFrom ); // Get a array of Dates, containing next 10 runs according to pattern
const prevRun = job.previous( );    
const msToNext = job.msToNext( /*optional*/ previousRun ); // Milliseconds left to next execution
const isRunning = job.running();

// Control scheduled execution
job.pause();                
job.resume();
job.stop();

Options

Key Default value Data type Remarks
maxRuns Infinite Number
catch false Boolean Catch and ignore unhandled errors in triggered function
timezone undefined String Timezone in Europe/Stockholm format
startAt undefined String ISO 8601 formatted datetime (2021-10-17T23:43:00)in local or specified timezone
stopAt undefined String ISO 8601 formatted datetime (2021-10-17T23:43:00)in local or specified timezone
interval 0 Number Minimum number of seconds between triggers.
paused false Boolean If the job should be paused from start.
context undefined Any Passed as the second parameter to triggered function
legacyMode false boolean Combine day-of-month and day-of-week using OR, default is AND

Pattern

The expressions of Croner are very similar to the ones of Vixie Cron, with a few additions and changes listed below.

  • In croner, a combination of day-of-week and day-of-month will only trigger when both conditions match. An example: 0 20 1 * MON will only trigger when monday occur the first day of any month. In Vixie Cron, it would trigger every monday AND the first day of every month. Vixie style can be enabled with legacyMode: true from version 4.2.0. See issue #53 for more information.

  • Croner expressions support the following additional modifiers

    • ? A question mark is substituted with croner initialization time, as an example - ? ? * * * * would be substituted with 25 8 * * * * if time is <any hour>:08:25 at the time of new Cron('? ? * * * *', <...>). The question mark can be used in any field.
    • L L can be used in the day of month field, to specify the last day of the month.
  • Croner also allow you to pass a javascript Date object, or a ISO 8601 formatted string, as a pattern. The scheduled function will trigger once at the specified date/time. If you use a timezone different from local, you pass ISO 8601 local time in target location, and specify timezone using the options (2nd parameter).

// ┌──────────────── (optional) second (0 - 59)
// │ ┌────────────── minute (0 - 59)
// │ │ ┌──────────── hour (0 - 23)
// │ │ │ ┌────────── day of month (1 - 31)
// │ │ │ │ ┌──────── month (1 - 12, JAN-DEC)
// │ │ │ │ │ ┌────── day of week (0 - 6, SUN-Mon) 
// │ │ │ │ │ │       (0 to 6 are Sunday to Saturday; 7 is Sunday, the same as 0)
// │ │ │ │ │ │
// * * * * * *
Field Required Allowed values Allowed special characters Remarks
Seconds Optional 0-59 * , - / ?
Minutes Yes 0-59 * , - / ?
Hours Yes 0-23 * , - / ?
Day of Month Yes 1-31 * , - / ? L
Month Yes 1-12 or JAN-DEC * , - / ?
Day of Week Yes 0-7 or SUN-MON * , - / ? 0 to 6 are Sunday to Saturday7 is Sunday, the same as 0

Note: Weekday and month names are case insensitive. Both MON and mon works.

It is also possible to use the following "nicknames" as pattern.

Nickname Description
\@yearly Run once a year, ie. "0 0 1 1 *".
\@annually Run once a year, ie. "0 0 1 1 *".
\@monthly Run once a month, ie. "0 0 1 * *".
\@weekly Run once a week, ie. "0 0 * * 0".
\@daily Run once a day, ie. "0 0 * * *".
\@hourly Run once an hour, ie. "0 * * * *".

Examples

Expressions

// Run a function according to pattern
Cron('15-45/10 */5 1,2,3 ? JAN-MAR SAT', function () {
    console.log('This will run every tenth second between second 15-45');
    console.log('every fifth minute of hour 1,2 and 3 when day of month');
    console.log('is the same as when Cron started, every saturday in January to March.');
});

Interval

// Trigger on specific interval combined with cron expression
Cron('* * * 7-16 * MON-FRI', { interval: 90 }, function () {
    console.log('This will trigger every 90th second at 7-16 on mondays to fridays.');
});

Find dates

// Find next month
const nextMonth = Cron("@monthly").next(),
    nextSunday = Cron("@weekly").next(),
    nextSat29feb = Cron("0 0 0 29 2 6").next(),
    nextSunLastOfMonth = Cron("0 0 0 L * 7").next();

console.log("First day of next month: " +  nextMonth.toLocaleDateString());
console.log("Next sunday: " +  nextSunday.toLocaleDateString());
console.log("Next saturday at 29th of february: " +  nextSat29feb.toLocaleDateString());  // 2048-02-29
console.log("Next month ending with a sunday: " +  nextSunLastOfMonth.toLocaleDateString()); 

With options


const job = Cron(
    '* * * * *', 
    { 
        maxRuns: Infinity, 
        startAt: "2021-11-01T00:00:00", 
        stopAt: "2021-12-01T00:00:00",
        timezone: "Europe/Stockholm"
    },
    function() {
        console.log('This will run every minute, from 2021-11-01 to 2021-12-01 00:00:00');
    }
);

Job controls

const job = Cron('* * * * * *', (self) => {
    console.log('This will run every second. Pause on second 10. Resume on 15. And quit on 20.');
    console.log('Current second: ', new Date().getSeconds());
    console.log('Previous run: ' + self.previous());
    console.log('Next run: ' + self.next());
});

Cron('10 * * * * *', {maxRuns: 1}, () => job.pause());
Cron('15 * * * * *', {maxRuns: 1}, () => job.resume());
Cron('20 * * * * *', {maxRuns: 1}, () => job.stop());

Passing a context

const data = {
    what: "stuff"
};

Cron('* * * * * *', { context: data }, (_self, context) => {
    console.log('This will print stuff: ' + context.what);
});

Cron('*/5 * * * * *', { context: data }, (self, context) => {
    console.log('After this, other stuff will be printed instead');
    context.what = "other stuff";
    self.stop();
});

Fire on a specific date/time

// A javascript date, or a ISO 8601 local time string can be passed, to fire a function once. 
// Always specify which timezone the ISO 8601 time string has with the timezone option.
let job = Cron("2025-01-01T23:00:00",{timezone: "Europe/Stockholm"},() => {
    console.log('This will run at 2025-01-01 23:00:00 in timezone Europe/Stockholm');
});

if (job.next() === null) {
    // The job will not fire for some reason
} else {
    console.log("Job will fire at " + job.next());
}

Contributing

See Contribution Guide

License

MIT


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the Croner README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.