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Programming language: JavaScript
License: MIT License
Tags: HTTP    

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README

undici

Node CI js-standard-style npm version codecov

An HTTP/1.1 client, written from scratch for Node.js.

Undici means eleven in Italian. 1.1 -> 11 -> Eleven -> Undici. It is also a Stranger Things reference.

Have a question about using Undici? Open a Q&A Discussion or join our official OpenJS Slack channel.

Install

npm i undici

Benchmarks

The benchmark is a simple hello world [example](benchmarks/benchmark.js) using a number of unix sockets (connections) with a pipelining depth of 10 running on Node 16. The benchmarks below have the simd feature enabled.

Connections 1

Tests Samples Result Tolerance Difference with slowest
http - no keepalive 15 4.63 req/sec ± 2.77 % -
http - keepalive 10 4.81 req/sec ± 2.16 % + 3.94 %
undici - stream 25 62.22 req/sec ± 2.67 % + 1244.58 %
undici - dispatch 15 64.33 req/sec ± 2.47 % + 1290.24 %
undici - request 15 66.08 req/sec ± 2.48 % + 1327.88 %
undici - pipeline 10 66.13 req/sec ± 1.39 % + 1329.08 %

Connections 50

Tests Samples Result Tolerance Difference with slowest
http - no keepalive 50 3546.49 req/sec ± 2.90 % -
http - keepalive 15 5692.67 req/sec ± 2.48 % + 60.52 %
undici - pipeline 25 8478.71 req/sec ± 2.62 % + 139.07 %
undici - request 20 9766.66 req/sec ± 2.79 % + 175.39 %
undici - stream 15 10109.74 req/sec ± 2.94 % + 185.06 %
undici - dispatch 25 10949.73 req/sec ± 2.54 % + 208.75 %

Quick Start

import { request } from 'undici'

const {
  statusCode,
  headers,
  trailers,
  body
} = await request('http://localhost:3000/foo')

console.log('response received', statusCode)
console.log('headers', headers)

for await (const data of body) {
  console.log('data', data)
}

console.log('trailers', trailers)

Body Mixins

The body mixins are the most common way to format the request/response body. Mixins include:

Example usage:

import { request } from 'undici'

const {
  statusCode,
  headers,
  trailers,
  body
} = await request('http://localhost:3000/foo')

console.log('response received', statusCode)
console.log('headers', headers)
console.log('data', await body.json())
console.log('trailers', trailers)

Note: Once a mixin has been called then the body cannot be reused, thus calling additional mixins on .body, e.g. .body.json(); .body.text() will result in an error TypeError: unusable being thrown and returned through the Promise rejection.

Should you need to access the body in plain-text after using a mixin, the best practice is to use the .text() mixin first and then manually parse the text to the desired format.

For more information about their behavior, please reference the body mixin from the Fetch Standard.

Common API Methods

This section documents our most commonly used API methods. Additional APIs are documented in their own files within the [docs](./docs/) folder and are accessible via the navigation list on the left side of the docs site.

undici.request([url, options]): Promise

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options [RequestOptions](./docs/api/Dispatcher.md#parameter-requestoptions)
    • dispatcher Dispatcher - Default: getGlobalDispatcher
    • method String - Default: PUT if options.body, otherwise GET
    • maxRedirections Integer - Default: 0

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.request method.

Calls options.dispatcher.request(options).

See [Dispatcher.request](./docs/api/Dispatcher.md#dispatcherrequestoptions-callback) for more details.

undici.stream([url, options, ]factory): Promise

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options [StreamOptions](./docs/api/Dispatcher.md#parameter-streamoptions)
    • dispatcher Dispatcher - Default: getGlobalDispatcher
    • method String - Default: PUT if options.body, otherwise GET
    • maxRedirections Integer - Default: 0
  • factory Dispatcher.stream.factory

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.stream method.

Calls options.dispatcher.stream(options, factory).

See [Dispatcher.stream](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#dispatcherstreamoptions-factory-callback) for more details.

undici.pipeline([url, options, ]handler): Duplex

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options [PipelineOptions](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#parameter-pipelineoptions)
    • dispatcher Dispatcher - Default: getGlobalDispatcher
    • method String - Default: PUT if options.body, otherwise GET
    • maxRedirections Integer - Default: 0
  • handler Dispatcher.pipeline.handler

Returns: stream.Duplex

Calls options.dispatch.pipeline(options, handler).

See [Dispatcher.pipeline](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#dispatcherpipelineoptions-handler) for more details.

undici.connect([url, options]): Promise

Starts two-way communications with the requested resource using HTTP CONNECT.

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options [ConnectOptions](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#parameter-connectoptions)
  • callback (err: Error | null, data: ConnectData | null) => void (optional)

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.connect method.

Calls options.dispatch.connect(options).

See [Dispatcher.connect](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#dispatcherconnectoptions-callback) for more details.

undici.fetch(input[, init]): Promise

Implements fetch.

Only supported on Node 16.5+.

This is experimental and is not yet fully compliant with the Fetch Standard. We plan to ship breaking changes to this feature until it is out of experimental. Help us improve the test coverage by following instructions at nodejs/undici/#951.

Basic usage example:

    import {fetch} from 'undici';

    async function fetchJson() {
        const res = await fetch('https://example.com')
        const json = await res.json()
        console.log(json);
    }

You can pass an optional dispatcher to fetch as:

import { fetch, Agent } from 'undici'

const res = await fetch('https://example.com', {
  // Mocks are also supported
  dispatcher: new Agent({
    keepAliveTimeout: 10,
    keepAliveMaxTimeout: 10
  })
})
const json = await res.json()
console.log(json)

request.body

A body can be of the following types:

  • ArrayBuffer
  • ArrayBufferView
  • AsyncIterables
  • Blob
  • Iterables
  • String
  • URLSearchParams
  • FormData

In this implementation of fetch, request.body now accepts Async Iterables. It is not present in the Fetch Standard.

import { fetch } from "undici";

const data = {
  async *[Symbol.asyncIterator]() {
    yield "hello";
    yield "world";
  },
};

(async () => {
  await fetch("https://example.com", { body: data, method: 'POST' });
})();

response.body

Nodejs has two kinds of streams: web streams, which follow the API of the WHATWG web standard found in browsers, and an older Node-specific streams API. response.body returns a readable web stream. If you would prefer to work with a Node stream you can convert a web stream using .fromWeb().

    import {fetch} from 'undici';
    import {Readable} from 'node:stream';

    async function fetchStream() {
        const response = await fetch('https://example.com')
        const readableWebStream = response.body;
        const readableNodeStream = Readable.fromWeb(readableWebStream);
    }

Specification Compliance

This section documents parts of the Fetch Standard that Undici does not support or does not fully implement.

Garbage Collection

The Fetch Standard allows users to skip consuming the response body by relying on garbage collection to release connection resources. Undici does not do the same. Therefore, it is important to always either consume or cancel the response body.

Garbage collection in Node is less aggressive and deterministic (due to the lack of clear idle periods that browsers have through the rendering refresh rate) which means that leaving the release of connection resources to the garbage collector can lead to excessive connection usage, reduced performance (due to less connection re-use), and even stalls or deadlocks when running out of connections.

// Do
const headers = await fetch(url)
  .then(async res => {
    for await (const chunk of res.body) {
      // force consumption of body
    }
    return res.headers
  })

// Do not
const headers = await fetch(url)
  .then(res => res.headers)

undici.upgrade([url, options]): Promise

Upgrade to a different protocol. See MDN - HTTP - Protocol upgrade mechanism for more details.

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options [UpgradeOptions](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#parameter-upgradeoptions)
  • callback (error: Error | null, data: UpgradeData) => void (optional)

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.upgrade method.

Calls options.dispatcher.upgrade(options).

See [Dispatcher.upgrade](docs/api/Dispatcher.md#dispatcherupgradeoptions-callback) for more details.

undici.setGlobalDispatcher(dispatcher)

  • dispatcher Dispatcher

Sets the global dispatcher used by Common API Methods.

undici.getGlobalDispatcher()

Gets the global dispatcher used by Common API Methods.

Returns: Dispatcher

UrlObject

  • port string | number (optional)
  • path string (optional)
  • pathname string (optional)
  • hostname string (optional)
  • origin string (optional)
  • protocol string (optional)
  • search string (optional)

Specification Compliance

This section documents parts of the HTTP/1.1 specification that Undici does not support or does not fully implement.

Expect

Undici does not support the Expect request header field. The request body is always immediately sent and the 100 Continue response will be ignored.

Refs: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-5.1.1

Pipelining

Undici will only use pipelining if configured with a pipelining factor greater than 1.

Undici always assumes that connections are persistent and will immediately pipeline requests, without checking whether the connection is persistent. Hence, automatic fallback to HTTP/1.0 or HTTP/1.1 without pipelining is not supported.

Undici will immediately pipeline when retrying requests after a failed connection. However, Undici will not retry the first remaining requests in the prior pipeline and instead error the corresponding callback/promise/stream.

Undici will abort all running requests in the pipeline when any of them are aborted.

Manual Redirect

Since it is not possible to manually follow an HTTP redirect on the server-side, Undici returns the actual response instead of an opaqueredirect filtered one when invoked with a manual redirect. This aligns fetch() with the other implementations in Deno and Cloudflare Workers.

Refs: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/#atomic-http-redirect-handling

Collaborators

Releasers

License

MIT


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the undici README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.